Tagged Image File Format (abbreviated TIFF) is a file format for storing images. The TIFF format is the standard in document imaging and document management systems using CCITT Group IV 2D compression. In high-volume storage scanning, documents are typically scanned in black-and-white to conserve storage capacity utilizing about 50 kB of storage at 300 ppi.
Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for open document exchange. PDF was officially released as an open standard on July 1, 2008, and published by the International Organization for Standardization. There are three types of PDF files: Normal, or Pure, PDF – This is the most common […]
Optical Character Recognition, more commonly referred to as OCR, is an electronic translation of images of handwritten, typewritten or printed text into searchable, or editable, text. While perfect translation would require human intervention, high-quality images can produce up to 95%-99% accuracy. Documents produced by a laser printer with standard fonts on white paper would likely […]
In the civil litigation discovery process, documents are often produced between parties on CD or DVD because the cost of production and delivery of documents on disk is so much less than production and delivery of paper. When these documents are printed, or returned to paper form, it’s called “blowback.”
Coding is the process whereby an individual examines an image of a document and populates the fields of the case database. The term “auto-coding” refers to a software process of using OCR to populate fields in a database. While improving, this technology is only appropriate for certain document collections when time is a major concern. […]
EDRM (Electronic Discovery Reference Model) was created in May 2005 to address the lack of standards and guidelines in the electronic discovery (e-discovery) market; a problem identified in the 2003 and 2004 Socha-Gelbmann Electronic Discovery surveys as a major concern for consumers and providers alike. The completed reference model provides a common, flexible, and extensible […]
Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 26(a)(1) requires disclosure of documents, data compilations and other tangible things that the parties may use to support their claims, defenses or damages computations. Although FRCR 26(a)(1) requirements are seemingly straightforward, the process of identifying and locating responsive documents and data has become more complex as people and companies continue […]
Spoliation is the intentional or negligent destruction or alteration of evidence when there is either a current litigation, an investigation, or if there is a reasonable chance either may occur in the near future.
This number will vary by the type of file and the particular characteristics of that file type. The secret to a good page estimate is the evaluation of the file types included in the set of data. The table below provides an average number of pages per GigaByte and MegaByte for some common document types: […]